Overview

 
 

Area km2: 1,972,550

Population: 126,014,024

Capital: Mexico City

ISO 3166: MX

 

Population density:
63.9 hab/km2


National flower:
Dhalia (Dahlia sp.)

 

   

Mexico has a significant agricultural activity and, also, is the place of origin and genetic diversity of more than a hundred products among which - due to their worldwide crucial importance - maize, papaya, tomato, vanilla, tobacco, cotton and beans, stand out. During the last years, Mexico has ranked among the top exporters of primary products such as avocado, tomato, chili pepper, lemon, berries, chicken, eggs and beef, but also of value-added products such as beer and tequila. Mexico's success in the export of agricultural products is explained, to a great extent, by the specialization pursued by its farmers, particularly after the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (now USMCA) of which Mexico is a Party. On the other hand, to supply its domestic demand for cereal grains and oilseed crops, Mexico imports maize, wheat and soybean byproducts.

 
 

 GM Crops

 

Does the country plant GM crops?
1Yes
Does the country plant GM crops?
Since
1996
Since
Area with GM crops in millions hectares
0.223
Area with GM crops in millions hectares

 
 
Percentage of each GM crop

 

HT: herbicide-tolerant - IR: insect-resistant
 

 
 
Adoption of transgenic crops in the country

 

 

COTTON
HT/IR, IR, HT

HT: herbicide-tolerant - IR: insect-resistant
 

 

Are there local developments?

Yes

Some examples of local developments

• Insect-resistant coffee to control Hypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer), developed by researchers from the Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioquímica, CINVESTAV, Irapuato, from the Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, CINVESTAV, Irapuato, and from the Instituto de Biotecnología y Ecología Aplicada de la Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa.

• Drought-tolerant maize, developed by researchers from the Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioingeniería, CINVESTAV IPN, Mexico City and from the Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, CINVESTAV IPN, Irapuato.

• Soybean and cotton with greater phosphorus use efficiency and to prevent weed development, developed jointly by a public-private endeavor of the Laboratorio de Genómica para la Biodiversidad - CINVESTAV and StelaGenomics.

 

  

 
 

 Benefits of GM crops

 

In 1996, the adoption of transgenic crops allowed for the reactivation of the Mexican cotton production, resulting in significant benefits for farmers and the country. In turn, farmers have succeeded in achieving more efficient pest and weed management practices, improving yields and cutting production costs. Also, GM cotton expressing genes for insect pest control had a positive environmental impact, reducing by five the pesticide applications required by conventional cotton crops.

 

   

 

   

For further information regarding benefits

 

• El cultivo del algodón: análisis del impacto social, económico y ambiental en México. Aguirre et al (2020)

• GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2018. Brookes and Barfoot (2020a)

• GM crop technology use 1996-2018: farm income and production impacts. Brookes and Barfoot (2020c)

• Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2018: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions. Brookes and Barfoot (2020b)

 

 

 
 

 Regulation of GM crops

 
1995
Since
Brief description of the regulatory framework

The Mexican Biosafety Law covers all GMOs. Policies and decision-making are entrusted to CIBIOGEM (Inter-secretarial Commission on GMO Biosafety), whose members are six State Secretaries (ministries) and the National Council for Science and Technology. The Biosafety Law differentiates between two types of regulated activities:

• Authorization: for the import and placement on the market of GMOs destined to food and/or feed, or further industrialization or processing.

• Permit: for GMOs to be released into the environment in any phase (experimentation, pilot programs and placement on the market).

The competent authority to issue authorizations is the Secretary of Health (Ministry of Health) which is supported by COFEPRIS (Federal Commission for the Protection against Health Risks). Regarding permits for GMOs of agricultural species, the competent authority is SADER (Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development), with the support of SENASICA (National Service for Agrifood Health, Safety and Quality); also, the opinion of SEMARNAT (Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources) must be taken into account. In case of GMOs being wild and forestry species, the competent authority is the SEMARNAT.

 


 

 
 

 GM animals

 


Does the country produce GM animals?

No

For the time being, the country does not commercially produce GM animals.

 

Brief description of the regulatory framework for GM animals

The Biosafety Law covers all GMOs and provides for the possibility to carry out trials with and commercially produce transgenic animals. As is the case with GM crops, policies and decision-making are entrusted to the CIBIOGEM (Inter-secretarial Commission on Biosafety of GMO), whose members are six State Secretaries (ministries) and the CONACYT. Permits are granted by the SADER (Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development) for livestock and any other case deemed to fall within the scope of the Federal Animal Health Act and fishery and aquaculture species, with the exception of those subject to special protection regimes under official Mexican regulations. In case of wild species subject to regulation under the General Wildlife Act and those subject to special protection regimes under official Mexican regulations, permits are granted by SEMARNAT (Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources).

 


 


Are there local developments?

No

For the time being, there are no local developments of GM animals in advanced stages.

 

 

 
 

 Multilateral Fora

 

Mexico is member/party of: