Area km2406,796

Population: 7,359,000

Capital: Asuncion

ISO 3166: PY


Population density:
18.1 hab/km2

National flower:
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)



Paraguay is an important player in the export of agricultural products, especially soybean and soybean byproducts, as well as maize, wheat, sesame, sunflower oil, sugar, stevia and beef. A high percentage of the Paraguayan population derive their livelihoods from agriculture, especially in rural areas, often in the form of subsistence farming. For the most part, Paraguayan farmers have adopted sustainable production systems that include no-tillage farming, fertilization and use of improved seeds conferring resistance to herbicides, diseases and insect pests.


 GM Crops


Does the country plant GM crops?
Does the country plant GM crops?
Area with GM crops in millions hectares
Area with GM crops in millions hectares

Percentage of each GM crop


HT: herbicide-tolerant - IR: insect-resistant

Adoption of transgenic crops in the country





HT: herbicide-tolerant - IR: insect-resistant






International trade of GM crops

Paraguay is a net ag-exporting country. Products derived from GM crops represent more than 57% of the value of the country's agricultural exports and reach 64 countries. For more information about the contribution of GM crops to world trade, from Paraguay and other Latin American countries, visit the Trade section.







Are there local developments?


For the time being, there are no local developments of GM crops in advanced stages.



 Benefits of GM crops


The adoption of transgenic crops resulted in significant economic benefits for the country, benefiting many farmers and their families. Herbicide-tolerance and insect-resistance technologies combine very well with no-till farming (NT), which has a high adoption rate in the country. The adoption of GM crops and NT farming practices reduced pesticide use, greenhouse gas emissions and production costs. It also contributed to the development of double-cropping schemes (two crops in one production year) such as wheat-soybean and soybean-maize.





For further information regarding benefits


Cultivos GM en la agricultura paraguaya. Tejeda Rodríguez, A., Regerio, D.B., Vicentin Masaro, J., Regúnaga, M., Jorge, N., & Trigo, E. (2022)

• GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2018
. Brookes and Barfoot (2020a)

• GM crop technology use 1996-2018: farm income and production impacts. Brookes and Barfoot (2020c)

• Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2018: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions. Brookes and Barfoot (2020b)

• Paraguay’s Path Toward the Simplification of Procedures in the Approval of GE Crops. Benítez Candia, N., Fernández Ríos, D., & Vicién, C. (2020)

• Capacities for the Risk Assessment of GMOs: Challenges to Build Sustainable Systems. Fernández Ríos, D., Rubinstein, C., & Vicién, C. (2018)




 Regulation of GM crops

Brief description of the regulatory framework

CONBIO (National Agricultural and Forestry Biosafety Commission) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock is in charge of GMO risk assessment. The Commission is composed of representatives from MAG (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock), MSPyBS (Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare), MIC (Ministry of Industry and Commerce), SENAVE (National Service for Plant and Seed Health and Quality), SENACSA (National Service for Animal Health and Quality), INFONA (National Forestry Institute), IPTA(Paraguayan Institute of Agricultural Technology), MADES (Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development) and UNA (National University of Asunción). Market approval is granted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, based on the recommendations issued by CONBIO. CONBIO is also in charge of granting permits for the performance of GMO confined activities. Paraguay has a separate procedure for the treatment of events that have been already approved in countries with experienced and transparent regulatory systems that base their risk assessments on the Codex Alimentarius.




 GM animals


Does the country produce GM animals?


For the time being, the country does not commercially produce GM animals.


Brief description of the regulatory framework for GM animals

The Paraguayan regulatory framework allows for the possibility to carry out trials with and commercially produce GM animals. As is the case for GM crops, the biosafety assessment is performed by CONBIO (National Agricultural and Forestry Biosafety Commission), coordinated by the MAG (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock), and composed of members of the different sectors.


Are there local developments?


For the time being, there are no local developments of GM animals in advanced stages.





 Multilateral Fora


Paraguay is member/party of: